Nucleic acids are the small biomolecules, vital to all known forms of life. These are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell by protein synthesis process. The three main classes of nucleic acids are DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), RNA (Ribonucleic acid) and Artificial Nucleic Acids. DNA is blueprint of life in living organisms and most viruses. RNA is genetic material of few viruses and also originates in all living cells where it plays significant role in making of proteins. Artificial Nucleic Acids are designed by chemists, which includes peptide, glycol, and locked nucleic acids. Each of these is extracted from naturally occurring DNA or RNA.